QUOTES FROM AND ABOUT THEODORE ROOSEVELT, 1858 - 1919:
The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood, who strives valiantly, who errs and comes up short again and again, who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions and spends himself in a great cause, who at the best knows the triumph of high achievement and who at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat.THEODORE ROOSEVELT, "To the Man in the Arena" 1858-1919
Nine-tenths of wisdom consists in being wise in time! THEODORE ROOSEVELT, page 54
The professors of every form of hyphenated Americanism are as truly the foes of this country as if they dwelled outside its borders and made active war against it. Once it was true that this country could not endure half free and half slave. Today it is true that it can not endure half American and half foreign. The hyphen is incompatible with patriotism. THEODORE ROOSEVELT, page 18
Page numbers from: THEODORE ROOSEVELT, in "Fear God And Take Your Own Part," copyright 1916 by George H. Doran Company, originally published 1914 by The Wheeler Syndicate, Inc.
The party comes from the grass roots. ALBERT BEVEREIDGE, US Senator from Indiana and historian, in a 1912 speech before the Bull Moose Convention in Chicago at which Theodore Roosevelt TR was nominated by the new Progressive party
I am as strong as a bull moose and you can use me to the limit. THEODORE ROOSEVELT, in a letter of June 27, 1900
Do what you can with what you have, where you are. THEODORE ROOSEVELT 1858-1919
In life, as in a football game, the principle to follow is: hit the line hard. THEODORE ROOSEVELT
It is better for the government to help a poor man to make a living for his family than it is to help a rich man make a profit for his company.
"Keep it [the Grand Canyon] for your children and for all who come after you, as one of the great sights every American should see." -- Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt, upon preserving the Grand Canyon in 1908.
OTHER QUOTES FROM THEODORE ROOSEVELT: It is difficult to make our material condition better by the best law, but it is easy enough to ruin it by bad laws. THEODORE ROOSEVELT, speech, Providence, Rhode Island, August 32, 1902 No man is above the law and no man is below it; nor do we ask any man's permission when we require him to obey it. Obedience to the law is demanded as a right, not asked as a favor. THEODORE ROOSEVELT, message to Congress, January, 1904
If you can't say anything good about someone, sit right next to me. ALICE ROOSEVELT LONGWORTH (Teddy's daughter)
Black care rarely sits behind the rider whose pace is fast enough. THEODORE ROOSEVELT
A great democracy must be progressive or it will soon cease to be a great democracy. - THEODORE ROOSEVELT
Every reform movement has a lunatic fringe. -- THEODORE ROOSEVELT
"When they call the roll in the Senate, the Senators do not know whether to answer 'Present' or 'Not guilty.'" -- THEODORE ROOSEVELT
INFORMATION AND TRIVIA ABOUT THEODORE ROOSEVELT
TR was the youngest person ever to be president (JFK was 43 when he took office by election; TR was 42 when he became president when President McKinley was assassinated.) TR was the first president to go underwater in a submarine; the first to fly in an airplane; and the first and only to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. He was a powerful reformer in New York politics, fighting the powerful and corrupt Tammany Gang New York City political machine.
He was born 1858, in the calm after the Civil War, of wealthy parents in New York. He was sickly, weak, nearsighted, and suffered fromasthma. What he did not have naturally, he made up for by force of will and stubbornness. He became a life-long believer in the"strenuous life." He worked constantly to strengthen his body, learning boxing and judo. He was a curious person, constantly investigating the world around him. He was a voracious reader, studying biology, zoology, history, and political philosophy. He sketched and studied birds his entire life. He wrote scholarly books and articles on birds which were considered reference quality.
He wrote a history of the war of 1812 which is still studied. He was an expert on naval battles and strategy.
He graduated in 1880 from Harvard and was on the boxing team. He married Alice, had a daughter Alice, and was elected at 23 the youngest person in the New York state Assembly. His happy life crashed, however, when his mother and wife both died on the same day. He was emotionally wiped out.
He entrusted his young daughter with relatives, and dropped out for a while. He went west to South Dakota to be a cowboy, sheriff, and laborer. He hunted buffalo and became a proficient horseman. He fell in love with the vanishing frontier. He was a screwy sight to the cowboys -- he was pudgy, he wore "granny" glasses, and he had a high, tinny voice with a funny, wimpy New York patrician accent. However, by hard work and gumption, he won their respect.
After he recharged his emotional batteries, he returned to New York, and married Edith. With daughter Alice and children from his new marriage, he settled down again. He became Police Commissioner in New York City, and cleaned up a corrupt system filled with graft. He was appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy. He single-handedly got the navy ready for the impending war with Spain when no one else could see the need. When the Secretary was away, he (without authority) cabled Admiral Dewey to take the Philippines if and when war broke out. The navy was ready when the Maine was bombed in Cuba and war broke out.
TR quit the office job and got a commission for the only volunteer cavalry unit of the war. He became a lieutenant colonel, second in command, and chose the men personally. He put together an unlikely, polyglot group of cowboys and Indian fighters from his South Dakota days, together with fancy polo players from the millionaire sons of New York and New England. The amalgamation was truly American. They trained in Texas, then traveled by ship to Cuba. However, given the eternal efficiency of the military, nobody had planned ahead to ship the horses, too. The cavalry "Rough Riders" fought on foot in Cuba. The colonel was transferred and TR became the commander. They fought bravely and well. TR led the attacks personally and became famous for leading the charge against fortified enemy positions on Kettle Hill (erroneously called by a newspaperman as the nearby San Juan Hill, site of the enemy blockhouse.) The battle became known as San Juan Hill. Over one-fifth of the Rough Riders were killed, and TR's personal leadership and bravery were unquestioned. He returned home a certified hero, and was elected governor of New York.
TR opposed many of the traditional abuses and excesses of the Republican Party, and was quite progressive for his day. He favoredlabor negotiations, public health and safety laws, and equal rights. He said that government must be the "steward" of public property for the benefit of the whole population, rather than graft and free wealth for a corrupt few. He thought that the government could and should regulate abuses in the uses of private property for public protection. The party leaders wanted to squelch the popular, dynamic governor. So, they arranged to have him nominated vice president to run in 1900 with William McKinley. They figured McKinley was in good health and there was no risk in having TR vice president where he could do nothing to affect public policy. However, McKinley was assassinated in 1901 in Buffalo, New York, by an anarchist, and TR became the youngest president in US history.
He immediately brought youth, energy, honor, and optimism to the White House. He single-handedly stopped the scandalous rape and pillage of federal lands by wealthy mining and lumber interests which were given free access by their Republican friends in government. He visited Yosemite and talked often with John Muir about saving wild lands. He appointed on old and trusted conservationist, Gifford Pinchot, to be US Forester. TR and Pinchot got down on the floor with a pen and drew areas on a large map which TR, using presidential authority alone, declared would be off- limits to mining and lumbering. These areas became Yellowstone, the Grand Canyon, the Grand Tetons, and other federal lands which became most of the national forests and national parks. Without TR, national parks and forests would have been ruined, pitted, and clear-cut. TR was and still is the greatest conservationist and environmentalist president ever.
TR saw the pernicious evils which had developed from the monopolies, then called "business trusts", by which a very few controlled and owned so very much, while the many were legally locked out of even the chance to compete fairly. TR stumped, spoke, argued, lobbied Congress, and changed the law to regulate and weaken monopolies. As a "trustbuster," he became loved by the common American people, and hated by the millionaire industrialists, such as J. P. Morgan, who made millions from the poverty and toil of the workers. John D. Rockefeller, who started Standard Oil and then acquired an control of the supply, processing, and marketing of oil by vertical and horizontal monopoly, hated TR. TR got the antitrust laws passed, forcing Standard to be broken down into several oil companies which were forced to allow competition. Standard Oil became many companies, including Standard Oil Company of New York (SOCONY) which became the Mobil Oil of today.
When Russia attacked Japan over disputes about islands and other issues, TR invited the ambassadors of each country to the presidential yacht to negotiate. Since neither would sit in the presence of each other, to get them to talk, TR had a round table put in a large room without any chairs. Before they had a chance to insult each other, he grabbed each of them by the arm and walked them around and around the table and got them talking. He cut through the traditional diplomatic red tape in a truly American display of disregard for aristocratic ego. He presided over the negotiations and by force of will hammered out the peace treaty, for which he was awarded theNobel Peace Prize.
He loved to be constantly in motion. He was surrounded by interesting people of all backgrounds, religions, and attitudes. He was happiest romping with his five children. Their favorite game was "Point to Point." They would hike from point to point, and they could go over, under, or through an obstacle, but never around. There are famous stories of foreign ambassadors trying to talk to TR about some stuffy issue of state. They would be dressed in formal attire of silk top hats and cutaway coats. Suddenly, TR, surrounded by the children would cry out "Point to Point" and take off. In those days, Washington was a muddy city surrounded by swamps. The ambassadors would return to their embassies covered by mud up to their chest from trying to keep up with TR. He also loved to spend time with his family at his at his Long Island home at Oyster Bay, New York called Sagamore Hill. He once said he could do one of two things. He could control Alice or be President of the United States, but not both. She married a powerful congressman named Longworth. Alice Roosevelt Longworth became the premier social grand dame and gossip in Washington for many decades. Her famous quote is: "If you can't say anything good about someone, sit right here by me."
TR became famous, loved by the American people, and literally a legend in his own time. While hunting in the south, he refused to shoot a small bear that the host had set up for him to shoot. The press published the story, plays were performed, songs were written and sung about the incident, and suddenly, all over the world, children had to have a stuffed bear called a "Teddy Bear."
When he was elected in his own right in 1904, he was elected by the then-greatest popular vote in the history of the republic. He had a platform called the "Square Deal," which included then-radical ideas such as abolishing child-enslaving labor, encouraging equal protection despite color, and laws to protect competition, especially for young and small businesses. The power brokers of the Republican Party were horrified, but the Progressive Era blazed across American history led by TR in Washington. (It was during this period that the people of California finally passed laws, with Progressive Governor Hyram Johnson, to protect themselves from the four "Robber Barons" who controlled the railroad and everything else in the state. The Robber Barons were Stanford, Crocker, Huntington, and Mark Hopkins.)
TR read a famous book, "The Jungle," by Upton Sinclair, which disclosed the disgusting and filthy conditions in which food was processed and sold. TR sponsored and got into law the federal Food and Drug Act, setting up the Food and Drug Administration to regulate cleanliness and safety in the food and pharmaceutical products that we take for granted today. TR also got laws passed to forbid preferential rebates whereby the railroad companies charged competitors many times more for shipping charges and run them out of business. He made life better for millions of ordinary people. He was the first president to leave the country while in office when he visited the site of the Panama Canal. The French had tried to cut the canal, but had failed, in part due to the malaria spread by mosquitoes. American doctors came up with a vaccine, and Americans were able to finish the canal. In a move controversial to this day, TR probably conspired to get control of the canal by encouraging a group of revolutionists in the country of Columbia. They declared a separate country of Panama. Ninety minutes later, TR recognized the new country and sent in troops to preserve it. TR demanded and got a very cheap lease for many years to the canal. Digging the canal was the greatest engineering and construction feat in the history of the world. Because of the canal, the US navy controlled both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans for decades. US returned sovereignty to the Canal in the late 1970's, but retains the right to defend it and keep it open to ships from all nations.
TR sent a fleet around the world to establish American power. The "great white fleet" sailed around the world. TR said he could order the fleet to the other side of the world, and Congress could get it back. He said that America should "speak softly but carry a big stick."
TR declined to run again in 1908, feeling that the custom established by George Washington was a good idea. He felt the president was only a temporary steward of public property. His popularity was such that he could have been reelected easily. When he left office, he hand-picked William Howard Taft (his Secretary of War) to be the next Republican nominee and president. After leaving office in 1909,TR had nothing further to accomplish in government. He was only 50, and as full of energy and curiosity as ever. So, he went on an extended and exhausting safari in Africa. He studied the flora and fauna, wrote extensive scholarly articles, and hunted vigorously. He was a contradictory combination of 19th century hunter and 20th century conservationist. He traveled the Nile and hiked in Egypt. He toured Europe, being wined and dined by the crown heads of every country. He was worried by the arrogant and militaristic Kaiser Wilheim of Germany. He spoke out for an organization of nations to prevent war.
Two years later, TR returned from the Grand Tour and was disappointed by Taft's performance, because Taft listened to the old leaders of the Republican Party and repealed many of the Progressive advances. TR ran against Taft and split the party. TR won the public primaries, but the wealthy party bosses controlled the delegates and chose Taft instead. TR felt he was cheated by the party bosses he had always fought. He lost the nomination to the incumbent president, so he ran as a third party nominee. While giving a speech, he was shot by a crazy who tried to assassinate him. He refused to leave the stage, and finished the speech, bleeding on the stage. He started the Progressive Party, called the "Bull Moose" party, because TR said he felt as strong and fit as a bull moose. TR split the Republican vote, and Democrat Woodrow Wilson was elected. Wilson then appointed William Howard Taft to be Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. (He is the only president also to be Chief Justice.)
Later, TR went on adventurous trip down a mysterious and unknown river in Brazil called the "River of Doubt," thought to be a tributary of the Amazon. He traveled with his son and a group of explorers. TR said it was his "last chance to be a boy." They all almost died. They lost boats in rapids. They all suffered jungle fever. TR broke his leg and almost died. They finally got out, but TR had lost 50 pounds and was weakened by the high fevers. The Brazilian government named the river "River Theodore" in his honor.
When World War I broke out, TR requested a commission from Wilson to form and lead a volunteer division as he had so many years earlier in Cuba. Wilson refused a commission to TR, who was now too old, weak, and sick for such missions. TR did what he could for the war effort, giving speeches supporting the president and selling war bonds. His four sons fought. He lost his beloved son Quentin in combat.
TR always loved to travel around speaking to the American people. He said that being president was being in a "bully pulpit." He was like a JFK of his day -- young, energetic, with a big, toothy smile and great personal charm. He flashed across the American sky like a comet of energy, honor, and hope for the future. His time was the dawning of a new century and a new period of US power and eminence, much of it engineered by TR. He died at age 60 in 1919. Most of his Progressive policies later became law.
His brother's daughter, Elenore Roosevelt, became the wife and first lady to Franklin Delano Roosevelt, himself a far-removed 6th or 7th cousin.
TR was a Renaissance Man--scholar, soldier, husband and father, scientist, hunter, environmentalist, statesman, explorer, and politician in the best sense. He is honored as one of the "great four" on Mt. Rushmore. Roosevelt Monument is a beautiful island and bird sanctuary in the river in Washington, DC. It is one of the largest monuments in area, and its location recognizes his contribution to conservation. There is a famous statute of TR giving a speech in his energetic way in a beautiful meadow surrounded by woods on the island.
Real Teddy Bear Story
How did toy bears come to be named after President Theodore Roosevelt?
It all started with a hunting trip President Roosevelt took in 1902 in Mississippi at the invitation of Mississippi Governor, Andrew H. Longino. After three days of hunting, other members of the party had spotted bears, but not Roosevelt.
Now what? The President's bear hunt would be a failure! The next day, the hunt guides tracked down an old black bear that the dogs had trailed quite a distance and attacked. The guides tied the bear to a willow tree and called for the President. Here was a bear for him to shoot!
But Roosevelt took one look at the old bear and refused to shoot it. He felt doing so would be unsportsmanlike. However, since it was injured and suffering, Roosevelt ordered that the bear be put down to end its pain. Word of this hit newspapers across the country, and political cartoonist Clifford Berryman picked up on the story, drawing a cartoon showing how President Roosevelt refused to shoot the bear while hunting in Mississippi.
The original cartoon, which ran in the Washington Post on November 16, 1902, shows Roosevelt standing in front. The guide and bear are in the background, and they’re about the same size. Later, similar cartoons appeared, but the bear was smaller and shaking with fear. This bear cub then appeared in other cartoons Clifford Berryman drew throughout Roosevelt’s career. That connected bears with President Roosevelt.
The Teddy Bear tie came when a Brooklyn, NY candy shop owner, Morris Michtom, saw Clifford Berryman’s original cartoon of Roosevelt and the bear and had an idea. He put in his shop window two stuffed toy bears his wife had made. Michtom asked permission from President Roosevelt to call these toy bears "Teddy's bears". The rapid popularity of these bears led Michtom to mass-produce them, eventually forming the Ideal Novelty and Toy Company.
At about the same time, a Germany company, Steiff, started making stuffed bears. Margaret Steiff earned her living by sewing, first by making stuffed elephants, then other animals. In 1903, an American saw a stuffed bear she had made and ordered many of them. These bears, which also came to be called Teddy Bears, made the international connection.
More than a century later, teddy bears have never lost popularity, and all can be traced to that one hunting trip in Mississippi.
MY TRIP TO VISIT SAGAMORE HILL, 2009
In 2009, I decided to visit the TR sites in Manhattan and Long Island, New York.
With the assistance of a client and friend who used to work in Manhattan, and who lives on Long Island, I had the very great pleasure to visit the THEODORE ROOSEVELT BIRTHPLACE, now a National Historic Site, in Manhattan. He was born there on October 27, 1858, and lived there until he was 15. The house, a typical brownstone of the 1840's, was restored in 1923 and opened as a museum.
I then stopped by the Museum of Natural History, upper Central Park West, to see the large statue of TR outside, and some of his quotes in huge carved letters on the walls.
The next day, it was off to Oyster Bay, on the northern shore in the middle of Long Island, to the house TR built for him and his family.... SAGAMORE HILL. Sagamore Hill was named for an Indian chief in the area.
TR had a portion of the railing around the front porch removed, so the crowds could see him better when he came out and made speeches and statements to the press.
After leaving the grounds of the home, I visited a small, old cemetery to pay my respects at the grave of TR and his wife. A small walk up a shaded, sun-dappled trail leads one to the grave at the top of the hill.
A visit to Sagamore Hill is like a visit to Mt. Vernon, home of George Washington. Every U.S. citizen should visit if possible.
--M. Dean Sutton
FOR FURTHER RESEARCH:
THEODORE ROOSEVELT Theodore Roosevelt became the 26th president of the United States after the death by assassination of William McKinley, on Sept. 14, 1901; he was elected to the office in his own right in 1904, serving until 1909. As president and political leader, Roosevelt was an articulate spokesman for the aspirations and values of progressivism, the reform movement that flourished in the United States from 1900 to World War I. He dominated that era in the nation's history. Early Life and Career Roosevelt was born into an old, prosperous Dutch family in New York City on Oct. 27, 1858. His father, a glass importer, wielded enormous influence over the boy, instilling in him a determination to strengthen his frail, asthmatic body; to follow a stern Christian moral code; and to enjoy the life of the mind. Young Roosevelt was educated at Harvard, where he graduated in 1880, still unsure of his life's work. In that year he married Alice H. Lee, a woman from Massachusetts. Her death (1884), only hours after his mother had died, left him bereaved, but in just less than three years he married Edith Kermit Carow. During the 1880s, Roosevelt divided his life between politics and writing. He served three one-year terms in the New York Assembly (1882-84), where he became known as an independent Republican. He supported civil service reform, legislation to benefit working people, and bills designed to improve the government of New York City. He proved himself a party regular, however, with his support, in 1884, of James G. Blaine against Democrat Grover Cleveland for the presidency. After living as a rancher in the Dakota Territory for two years, he returned (1886) and ran for mayor of New York City, finishing last in a three-way race. His literary and historical writing, which began early in the decade, gained momentum late in the 1880s when he wrote, among other works, biographies of Thomas Hart Benton (1886) and Gouverneur Morris (1888) and published the first two volumes of his well-researched Winning of the West (1889). This work was completed in 1896 with an additional two volumes. Roosevelt's political career blossomed in the next 10 years. Named a civil-service commissioner in 1889 by President Benjamin Harrison, he battled successfully to increase the number of positions that were based on merit and to improve the commission's administrative procedures. He resigned this office in 1895 to become president of New York City's Board of Police Commissioners in the reform administration of William L. Strong. After 2 years he was back in Washington, this time as assistant secretary of the navy under President William McKinley. A nationalist and an expansionist, Roosevelt used his office in whatever way he could to prepare the nation for war with Spain. Once the SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR came (1898), he helped organize the ROUGH RIDERS, saw considerable action in Cuba, and returned to the United States a colonel with fond remembrances of his regiment's bravery. Roosevelt's sudden fame and his reputation as an independent moved Thomas Collier PLATT, boss of New York's Republican party, to nominate him for governor in 1898. He won in a close election that fall. Roosevelt's governorship (1899-1900) prepared him well for high office in Washington. He steered a middle course between subservience to the political machine and independent reformism. He championed civil service, backed a measure to tax corporation franchises, and approved several bills supportive of labor and social reform. In general, he had developed the concept of a positive, active state government by the time "Boss" Platt decided to "kick him upstairs." Working with others, Platt engineered Roosevelt's nomination as President McKinley's vice-presidential running mate in 1900. In November the Republican ticket was easily elected. Presidency McKinley's assassination in September 1901 catapulted Roosevelt to the presidency, much to the dismay of Republican conservatives. He assured his party that he would continue McKinley's policies, and until 1904 he moved cautiously while working to gain control of the national Republican organization. Even so, these years witnessed certain new directions in Washington as Roosevelt sought to accommodate the developing reform movement. Disturbed, as were others, by the growing power of the large corporations, Roosevelt ordered (1902) the Justice Department to bring suit under the SHERMAN ANTI-TRUST ACT (1890) against the Northern Securities Company, a railroad monopoly in the northwest. This suit launched a "trust-busting" crusade against big business that would carry over into Roosevelt's second administration. In 1903 he persuaded Congress to establish the Bureau of Corporations, an investigative agency of interstate corporations, lodged in the newly created Department of Commerce and Labor. He also supported the Elkins Bill (1903), which prohibited the use of the rebate by railroads. Roosevelt departed from past practice in another way. When, in 1902, the anthracite coal miners struck, he became the first president to intervene in a labor-management dispute, threatening to seize the mines in order to persuade the recalcitrant owners to accept mediation. An arbitration commission subsequently awarded the miners a favorable settlement. Finally, Roosevelt advanced the cause of conservation. An enthusiastic supporter of the Newlands Bill (1902) on reclamation and irrigation, Roosevelt also backed Chief Forester Gifford PINCHOT in expanding the nation's forest reserve, setting aside waterpower sites and millions of acres of coal lands, and encouraging conservation on the state level. His record together with his firm control of the Republican party won Roosevelt the presidential nomination, then the 1904 election against Democrat Alton B. Parker. His second administration reflected the quickened pace of the progressive movement, and he assumed an increasingly radical posture. In 1906, Congress enacted moderate reformist legislation: the Hepburn Act, which strengthened the authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission over railroads; the Meat Inspection and the Pure Food and Drug bills, which, respectively, provided for federal inspection of packing plants and prohibited the interstate transportation of adulterated drugs or mislabeled foods; and an employer's liability law (subsequently declared unconstitutional). During his remaining White House years, Roosevelt combined assaults on the "malefactors of wealth" with the presentation of reform proposals to Congress, including federal supervision of all interstate business. Many of his detractors charged that his radical policies had precipitated the Banker's Panic of 1907. As right-wing criticism mounted, Roosevelt's relations with Congress soured, and many of his initiatives were frustrated during his last year in office. Roosevelt's conduct of foreign relations was even bolder and more vigorous than his domestic program. After Colombia's rejection (1903) of a treaty giving the United States rights to a canal across the isthmus of Panama, he supported a Panamanian revolt and then negotiated a similar treaty with the new nation. He subsequently supervised the construction of the Panama Canal and in 1904 promulgated the Roosevelt Corollary to the MONROE DOCTRINE, justifying U.S. intervention in the affairs of Latin American nations if their weakness or wrongdoing warranted such action. In 1905 he mediated the Russo-Japanese War, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize, and in general he worked to maintain the balance of power in Asia and the Pacific. In the Atlantic he also played a role in smoothing over a 1905 crisis among the European powers on the Moroccan question. A staunch imperialist, Roosevelt used his office to streamline the army and enlarge the navy in order to protect U.S. acquisitions abroad. Overall he labored effectively to prepare the United States for a larger role in world affairs. Postpresidential Years By the time Roosevelt stepped down from the presidency in 1909, the Republican party was badly divided between the conservatives and the progressives. In the next two years, under his chosen successor, William Howard TAFT, the rift widened, essentially because of Taft's inept leadership. When Roosevelt returned from an African safari and a grand tour of Europe in June 1910, he intervened in Republican party affairs hoping to conciliate the warring factions. His efforts unsuccessful, he went into retirement at his Oyster Bay, N.Y., home but was drawn into politics once again after a series of disputes with Taft. Roosevelt, now the leader of the Republican's progressive wing, challenged his former friend for the party's presidential nomination in 1912 but was crushed by the Taft "steamroller" in Chicago and subsequently established the National PROGRESSIVE PARTY (popularly known as the BULL MOOSE PARTY). His campaign theme, the New Nationalism, represented the most ambitious and comprehensive reform program of the day, excepting socialism. His platform called for increases in economic regulation and new social reforms. The ensuing campaign centered on Roosevelt and the Democratic candidate, Woodrow WILSON, whose New Freedom was developed as an alternative to Bull Moose formulas. Roosevelt divided the Republican vote with Taft, and Wilson was elected. In the years after 1912, Roosevelt gradually returned to his former Republicanism. He became a critic of Wilson's foreign policy and moved ever closer to advocating war with Germany. Still a prolific writer, he wrote his acclaimed autobiography (1913) during this period. He aspired to the Republican presidential nomination in 1916 but was disappointed when the party turned to Charles Evans Hughes for its standard-bearer. Roosevelt fell ill in 1918 and died at Sagamore Hill, his Oyster Bay home, on Jan. 6, 1919. The significance of Roosevelt's leadership lay in his use of high office to curb private greed and power in a day when Americans were disturbed by the abuses of big business, the waste of the nation's natural resources, and the threatened loss of traditional values. He elevated the presidency to a level it had not reached since the time of Abraham Lincoln. Some have labeled Roosevelt a rank opportunist for his shifting of position on key issues, but as a democratic politician he prided himself in responding to the changing needs of the citizenry. A master publicist for the reform movement in the early 20th century, he commanded widespread popular support as much because of his remarkable personality as anything else: he was colorful, witty, robust, outspoken, and humane. Robert F. Wesser
Bibliography: Beale, Howard K., Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of America to World Power (1984); Blum, John M., The Republican Roosevelt, 2d ed. (1954; repr. 1977); Burton, David H., Theodore Roosevelt (1973); Chessman, G. Wallace, Theodore Roosevelt and the Politics of Power (1969); Collin, Richard H., Theodore Roosevelt: Culture, Diplomacy, and Expansion (1985) and Theodore Roosevelt's Caribbean (1990); Cutright, Paul R., Theodore Roosevelt: The Making of a Conservationist (1985); Esthus, Raymond A., Theodore Roosevelt and the International Rivalries (1982); Gould, Lewis, The Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt (1991); Harbaugh, William H., The Life and Times of Theodore Roosevelt, new rev. ed. (1975); McCullough, David, Mornings on Horseback (1981); Miller, Nathan, Theodore Roosevelt: A Life (1993); Morris, Edmund, The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt (1979); Mowry, George E., The Era of Theodore Roosevelt (1958); Norton, Aloysius A., Theodore Roosevelt (1980); Pringle, Henry F., Theodore Roosevelt: A Biography, rev. ed. (1956); Schullery, Paul, Theodore Roosevelt: Wilderness Writings (1986). 26th President of the United States (1901-09) Nickname: "TR"; "Trust-Buster"; "Teddy".
Born: Oct. 27, 1858, New York City. Education: Harvard College (graduated 1880). Profession: Author, Lawyer, Public Official. Religious Affiliation: Dutch Reformed. Marriage: Oct. 27, 1880, to Alice Hathaway Lee (1861-84); Dec. 2, 1886, to Edith Kermit Carow (1861-1948) Children: Alice Lee Roosevelt (1884-1980); Theodore Roosevelt (1887-1944); Kermit Roosevelt (1889-1943); Ethel Carow Roosevelt (1891-1977); Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt (1894-1979); Quentin Roosevelt (1897-1918). Political Affiliation: Republican. Writings: The Naval War of 1812 (1882); The Winning of the West (1889-96); African Game Trails (1910); Autobiography (1913); America and the World War (1915) Died: Jan. 6, 1919, Oyster Bay, N.Y. Buried: Young's Memorial Cemetery, Oyster Bay, N.Y. Vice-President: Charles Warren Fairbanks (1905-09). Cabinet Members: Secretary of State: John M. Hay (1901-05); Elihu Root (1905-09); Robert Bacon (1909). Secretary of the Treasury: Lyman J. Gage (1901-02); Leslie M. Shaw (1902-07); George B. Cortelyou (1907-09). Secretary of War: Elihu Root (1901-04); William H. Taft (1904-08); Luke E. Wright (1908-09). Attorney General: Philander C. Knox (1901-04); William H. Moody (1904-06); Charles J. Bonaparte (1906-09). Postmaster General: Charles Emory Smith (1901-02); Henry C. Payne (1902-04); Robert J. Wynne (1904-05); George B. Cortelyou (1905-07); George von L. Meyer (1907-09). Secretary of the Navy: James D. Long (1901-02); William H. Moody (1902-04); Paul Morton (1904-05); Charles J. Bonaparte (1905-06); Victor H. Metcalf (1906-08); Truman H. Newberry (1908-09). Secretary of the Interior: Ethan A. Hitchcock (1901-07); James R. Garfield (1907-09). Secretary of Agriculture: James Wilson. Secretary of Commerce and Labor: George B. Cortelyou (1903-04); Victor H. Metcalf (1904-06); Oscar S. Straus (1906-09).
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